# Cryptographic Functions In Solidity

In this article, we will explore some of the most commonly used cryptography functions in Solidity and their importance in smart contract development.

We will also discuss how these functions can be used to enhance the security and reliability of smart contracts. So, let’s dive in and take a closer look at Solidity cryptography functions.

Cryptographic functions perform a key role in securing smart contracts. Solidity has a variety of cryptographic functions for you to guarantee that the smart contracts you develop are secure.

## What is Hashing in Solidity?

In cryptography, a hash function is an algorithm that produces enciphered text of a fixed size by taking an arbitrary amount of data as input.

The output can be completely different even for the smallest change in the input.

Cryptographic functions provided by Solidity include:

 Function Properties keccak256(bytes memory) returns (bytes32) Calculates a Keccak-256 hash from the input sha256(bytes memory) returns (bytes32) Calculates the input’s SHA-256 hash ripemd160(bytes memory) returns (bytes32) Provides the RIPEMD-160 hash of the input ecrecover(bytes32 hash, uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) returns (address) Recover the address associated with the public key from Elliptic curve signature used for cryptography or return Zero if an error occurs. The parameters correspond to ECDSA Signature values.

The most commonly used hash function in Solidity is the SHA-3 (Secure Hash Algorithm 3).

SHA-3 is a cryptographic hash function that generates a fixed-length output from an arbitrary input.

The output generated by SHA-3 is usually represented in hexadecimal format.

Solidity provides the keccak256 function, which is an implementation of SHA-3.

The keccak256 function takes a variable-length input and generates a 256-bit output.

The output generated by keccak256 is deterministic, meaning that the same input always generates the same output.

The following example shows the working of cryptographic functions provided by solidity:

#### Example:

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;contract SolidityTest {// The given function converts a string to keccak256 Hash Form // function encrypt_String_To_keccak256(string memory mrx) public pure returns(bytes32){ bytes32 ample= keccak256(abi.encodePacked(mrx));return ample;}// The given function converts a string to SHA256 Hash Form //function encrypt_String_To_SHA256(string memory mrx) public pure returns(bytes32){ bytes32 ample= sha256(abi.encodePacked(mrx));return ample;}// The given function converts a string to a ripemd Hash Form // function encrypt_String_To_Ripemd(string memory mrx) public pure returns(bytes32){ bytes32 ample= ripemd160(abi.encodePacked(mrx));return ample;}// ecrecover() will provide the address of the public keyfunction get_Address(string memory mrx, uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) public pure returns (address){bytes32 ample=keccak256(abi.encodePacked(mrx));address mrx_address= ecrecover(ample, v, r, s); return mrx_address;}}

## Digital Signatures

Smart contracts use digital signatures to ensure data authenticity and integrity.

Digital signatures can be created and verified using several Solidity functions.

Solidity uses the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) for digital signatures. To create digital signatures, ECDSA is used as a public-key cryptography algorithm.

For verifying digital signatures, Solidity provides the ecrecover function.

Four parameters are passed to the ecrecover function: the hash value of the signed data, the v parameter, the r parameter, and the s parameter of the signature.

The function returns the public key of the signer if the signature is valid, and returns 0x0 otherwise.

### Conclusion

It can be concluded that cryptographic functions are an effective way for you to perform a variety of cryptographic operations, including hashing, encrypting, generating digital signatures, and generating random numbers, by means of smart contracts, so that data is secure, private, and authentic.

With cryptography functions, you can develop more sophisticated, complex, and user-friendly applications that are trusted by users by using cryptography functions.

To avoid common security pitfalls during the development of smart contracts, it is crucial that we understand the limitations and potential vulnerabilities of these functions.
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