HTML Character Sets

Html Ref Charactersets

Character Sets In HTML

Here we are discussing Ref charactersets. HTML5’s default character set is UTF-8.

In browser, alphabets, numbers, and some other symbols appear properly. All of this is made accessible by the character set a web browser is supposed to support. On the internet, there are different character encoding standards which allocate numbers to the character sets used in the character set.

  • ASCII: Text data on the internet and in computers is encoded with ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). Among the 128 alphabetic, numeric, and control codes used in ASCII-encoded data, there are 128 unique values.
  • ANSI(Windows-1252):A character encoding created by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) supports 256 characters. Microsoft Windows uses this character set by default.
  • ISO-8859-1:HTML4 uses it as a default character set that supports 256 characters. Standard character sets for different alphabets and languages are defined by the International Standard Organization (ISO). There are numbers, uppercase and lowercase letters, and special characters in it.
  • UTF-8:A multilingual environment cannot use ISO-8859 character-sets, so Unicode Consortium developed UTF-8 and UTF-16 standards. There are all the symbols for characters and punctuation in it.

Here is how charactersets are included in the html:


<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta charset="UTF-8"> </head> <body> <p>Welcome to MR EXAMPLES</p> </body> </html>

Check out our Complete HTML Character Set Reference for a detailed look.

33!!!!exclamation mark
34quotation mark
35####number sign
36$$$$dollar sign
37%%%%percent sign
40((((left parenthesis
41))))right parenthesis
43++++plus sign
46....full stop
480000digit zero
491111digit one
502222digit two
513333digit three
524444digit four
535555digit five
546666digit six
557777digit seven
568888digit eight
579999digit nine
60<<<<less-than sign
61====equals sign
62>>>>greater-than sign
63????question mark
64@@@@commercial at
65AAAALatin capital letter A
66BBBBLatin capital letter B
67CCCCLatin capital letter C
68DDDDLatin capital letter D
69EEEELatin capital letter E
70FFFFLatin capital letter F
71GGGGLatin capital letter G
72HHHHLatin capital letter H
73IIIILatin capital letter I
74JJJJLatin capital letter J
75KKKKLatin capital letter K
76LLLLLatin capital letter L
77MMMMLatin capital letter M
78NNNNLatin capital letter N
79OOOOLatin capital letter O
80PPPPLatin capital letter P
81QQQQLatin capital letter Q
82RRRRLatin capital letter R
83SSSSLatin capital letter S
84TTTTLatin capital letter T
85UUUULatin capital letter U
86VVVVLatin capital letter V
87WWWWLatin capital letter W
88XXXXLatin capital letter X
89YYYYLatin capital letter Y
90ZZZZLatin capital letter Z
91[[[[left square bracket
92\\\\reverse solidus
93]]]]right square bracket
94^^^^circumflex accent
95____low line
96````grave accent
97aaaaLatin small letter a
98bbbbLatin small letter b
99ccccLatin small letter c
100ddddLatin small letter d
101eeeeLatin small letter e
102ffffLatin small letter f
103ggggLatin small letter g
104hhhhLatin small letter h
105iiiiLatin small letter i
106jjjjLatin small letter j
107kkkkLatin small letter k
108llllLatin small letter l
109mmmmLatin small letter m
110nnnnLatin small letter n
111ooooLatin small letter o
112ppppLatin small letter p
113qqqqLatin small letter q
114rrrrLatin small letter r
115ssssLatin small letter s
116ttttLatin small letter t
117uuuuLatin small letter u
118vvvvLatin small letter v
119wwwwLatin small letter w
120xxxxLatin small letter x
121yyyyLatin small letter y
122zzzzLatin small letter z
123{{{{left curly bracket
124||||vertical line
125}}}}right curly bracket
128euro sign
129NOT USED
130single low-9 quotation mark
131ƒLatin small letter f with hook
132double low-9 quotation mark
133horizontal ellipsis
135double dagger
136ˆmodifier letter circumflex accent
137per mille sign
138ŠLatin capital letter S with caron
139single left-pointing angle quotation mark
140ŒLatin capital ligature OE
141NOT USED
142ŽLatin capital letter Z with caron
143NOT USED
144NOT USED
145left single quotation mark
146right single quotation mark
147left double quotation mark
148right double quotation mark
150en dash
151em dash
152˜small tilde
153trade mark sign
154šLatin small letter s with caron
155single right-pointing angle quotation mark
156œLatin small ligature oe
157NOT USED
158žLatin small letter z with caron
159ŸLatin capital letter Y with diaeresis
160no-break space
161¡¡¡inverted exclamation mark
162¢¢¢cent sign
163£££pound sign
164¤¤¤currency sign
165¥¥¥yen sign
166¦¦¦broken bar
167§§§section sign
169©©©copyright sign
170ªªªfeminine ordinal indicator
171«««left-pointing double angle quotation mark
172¬¬¬not sign
173­­­soft hyphen
174®®®registered sign
176°°°degree sign
177±±±plus-minus sign
178²²²superscript two
179³³³superscript three
180´´´acute accent
181µµµmicro sign
182pilcrow sign
183···middle dot
185¹¹¹superscript one
186ºººmasculine ordinal indicator
187»»»right-pointing double angle quotation mark
188¼¼¼vulgar fraction one quarter
189½½½vulgar fraction one half
190¾¾¾vulgar fraction three quarters
191¿¿¿inverted question mark
192ÀÀÀLatin capital letter A with grave
193ÁÁÁLatin capital letter A with acute
194ÂÂÂLatin capital letter A with circumflex
195ÃÃÃLatin capital letter A with tilde
196ÄÄÄLatin capital letter A with diaeresis
197ÅÅÅLatin capital letter A with ring above
198ÆÆÆLatin capital letter AE
199ÇÇÇLatin capital letter C with cedilla
200ÈÈÈLatin capital letter E with grave
201ÉÉÉLatin capital letter E with acute
202ÊÊÊLatin capital letter E with circumflex
203ËËËLatin capital letter E with diaeresis
204ÌÌÌLatin capital letter I with grave
205ÍÍÍLatin capital letter I with acute
206ÎÎÎLatin capital letter I with circumflex
207ÏÏÏLatin capital letter I with diaeresis
208ÐÐÐLatin capital letter Eth
209ÑÑÑLatin capital letter N with tilde
210ÒÒÒLatin capital letter O with grave
211ÓÓÓLatin capital letter O with acute
212ÔÔÔLatin capital letter O with circumflex
213ÕÕÕLatin capital letter O with tilde
214ÖÖÖLatin capital letter O with diaeresis
215×××multiplication sign
216ØØØLatin capital letter O with stroke
217ÙÙÙLatin capital letter U with grave
218ÚÚÚLatin capital letter U with acute
219ÛÛÛLatin capital letter U with circumflex
220ÜÜÜLatin capital letter U with diaeresis
221ÝÝÝLatin capital letter Y with acute
222ÞÞÞLatin capital letter Thorn
223ßßßLatin small letter sharp s
224àààLatin small letter a with grave
225áááLatin small letter a with acute
226âââLatin small letter a with circumflex
227ãããLatin small letter a with tilde
228äääLatin small letter a with diaeresis
229åååLatin small letter a with ring above
230æææLatin small letter ae
231çççLatin small letter c with cedilla
232èèèLatin small letter e with grave
233éééLatin small letter e with acute
234êêêLatin small letter e with circumflex
235ëëëLatin small letter e with diaeresis
236ìììLatin small letter i with grave
237íííLatin small letter i with acute
238îîîLatin small letter i with circumflex
239ïïïLatin small letter i with diaeresis
240ðððLatin small letter eth
241ñññLatin small letter n with tilde
242òòòLatin small letter o with grave
243óóóLatin small letter o with acute
244ôôôLatin small letter o with circumflex
245õõõLatin small letter o with tilde
246öööLatin small letter o with diaeresis
247÷÷÷division sign
248øøøLatin small letter o with stroke
249ùùùLatin small letter u with grave
250úúúLatin small letter u with acute
251ûûûLatin small letter with circumflex
252üüüLatin small letter u with diaeresis
253ýýýLatin small letter y with acute
254þþþLatin small letter thorn
255ÿÿÿLatin small letter y with diaeresis

Character Sets In HTML: Advantages and Limitations

The following are the advantages and limitations of the Character sets in HTML:

Advantages of using character sets in HTML

  1. Increased language support: Character sets enable the representation of text in multiple languages, allowing web developers to create websites that can be accessed and read by people from diverse linguistic backgrounds.
  2. Consistency in rendering: When a character set is used, web browsers can accurately render text without errors or incorrect formatting, providing a consistent and uniform user experience.
  3. Accessibility: Character sets can enhance the accessibility of web content, as they allow the use of special characters, symbols, and diacritical marks that are important in some languages.
  4. Improved search engine optimization (SEO): Character sets enable the use of international characters and special symbols in meta tags, which can improve the visibility and ranking of websites in search engine results pages.

Limitations of using character sets in HTML

  1. Compatibility issues: Some older web browsers and operating systems may not support all character sets, which can result in text rendering errors or the display of “garbled” characters.
  2. Increased file size: The use of multiple character sets in a webpage can increase the file size, which can negatively impact loading times, particularly for users on slow internet connections.
  3. Security vulnerabilities: Certain characters in character sets can be used to exploit security vulnerabilities, such as cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. Web developers need to be aware of these vulnerabilities and take steps to mitigate them.
  4. Complexity: The use of multiple character sets and special characters can increase the complexity of web development and maintenance, requiring additional testing and validation to ensure the website works correctly in all scenarios.

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